Scientific References




Jennifer SVZ amyg wide.jpg


The human brain in neuroscience research and CNS drug discovery

Dragunow M. Human brain neuropharmacology – a platform for translational neuroscience. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences November 2020, Vol. 41, No. 11: 777-792. This manuscript details the use of human brain tissue microarray, human brain cell culture, and high content screening in drug discovery and development for brain disorders

Rustenhoven J, Jansson D, Smyth L, Dragunow M. Brain pericytes as mediators of neuroinflammation. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences pii: S0165-6147(16)30183-3. doi: 10.1016/, 2017.

*Dragunow M. The adult human brain in preclinical drug development.  Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 7, 659-666, 2008. This manuscript provides the blue-print/theoretical basis for establishing NeuroValida and details the use of human brain tissue microarray and human brain cell culture in pre-clinical CNS drug development

Gibbons H, Dragunow M. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 42, 844-856, 2010.

Smith A and Dragunow M. The human side of microglia. Trends in Neurosciences 37(3) 125-135, 2014.

Dragunow M. Cell and tissue Culture. In Aminoff MJ and Daroff RB (eds.) Encyclopedia of Neurological Sciences 2nd edition, vol. 1, pp. 630-633, Oxford: Academic Press, 2014.

*Dragunow M. High content analysis in neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9(10), 779-88, 2008. This manuscript describes the high content analysis/screening techniques utilized by Neurovalida scientists for acquiring and analyzing tissue microarray and human brain cell culture data

Bhardwaj RD*, Curtis MA*, Spalding KL, Buchholz BA, Fink D, Björk-Eriksson T, Nordborg C, Druid H, Eriksson PS, Frisen J (2006) The age of human cerebral cortex neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:12564-8 (* equal contributors)

*Waldvogel HJ, Bullock JY, Synek BJ, Curtis MA, van Roon-Mom WM, Faull RLM (2008) The collection and processing of human brain tissue for research. Cell and Tissue Banking 9:169-179. This article details the protocols utilized in the Human Brain Bank for tissue processing

*Waldvogel HJ, Curtis MA, Baer K, Rees MI, Faull RLM (2007) Immunohistochemical staining of post-mortem adult brain sections. Nature Protocols 1:2719-2732. This article also details the protocols utilized in the Human Brain Bank for tissue processing

Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Eriksson PS (2007) The effect of neurodegenerative diseases on the subventricular zone. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 8:712-723


Human brain tissue microarray

Singh-Bains, M.K., Mehrabi, N.F., Tan, A.Y.S. Faull, RLM, Dragunow M. Preparation, construction and high-throughput automated analysis of human brain tissue microarrays for neurodegenerative disease drug development. Nature Protocols 2021 Mar 19. doi: 10.1038/s41596-021-00503-7. This article details the protocols utilized in the construction, use and analysis of human brain tissue microarrays for drug development

Highet B, Anekal PV, Ryan B, Murray HC, Coppieters N, Dieriks BV, Singh-Bains M, Mehrabi N, Austria M, Dragunow M, Faull RLM, Curtis MA. fISHing with immunohistochemistry for housekeeping gene changes in Alzheimer’s Disease using an automated quantitative analysis workflow. Journal of Neurochemistry 2020 Dec 25. doi: 10.1111/jnc.15283.

Dominy SS, Lynch C, Ermini F, Benedyk M, Marczyk A, konradi A, Nguyen M, Haditsch U, Raha D, Griffin C, Holsinger LJ, Arastu-Kapur S, Kaba S, Lee A, Ryder MI, Potempa B, Mydel P, Hellvard A, Adamowicz K, Hasturk H, Walker GD, Reynolds EC, Faull RLM, Curtis M, Dragunow M, Potempa J. Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s disease brains: evidence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inhibitors. Science Advances 23 Jan 2019: Vol. 5, no. 1, eaau3333 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau3333

Yang P, Waldvogel H, Turner C, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, Guan J. Vascular remodelling is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Parkinsonism 7:313 doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000313, 2017.

Yang P, Min, Mohammadi M, Turner C, Faull R, Waldvogel H, Dragunow M and Guan J. Endothelial Degeneration of Parkinson Disease is related to Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation. Alzheimer's Disease & Parkinsonism DOI: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000370, 2017.

Coppieters N, Dieriks BV, Lill C, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Dragunow M. Global changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in Alzheimer’s disease human brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 35, 1334-1344, 2014.

Narayan P, Lill C, Faull RLM, Curtis M, Dragunow M. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer’s disease brain. Neurobiology of Disease 74, 281-294, 2015.

Narayan P, Kim, S-L, Lill C, Feng S, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Dragunow M. Assessing fibrinogen extravasation into Alzheimer’s disease brain using high content screening of brain tissue microarrays. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 247, 41-49, 2015.

Singh-Bains M, Linke V, Austria M, Tan A, Scotter E, Mehrabi N, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Altered microglia and neurovasculature in the Alzheimer's disease cerebellum. Neurobiology of Disease, Aug 24; 132:104589. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2019.104589.

Hegde RN Chiki A, Petricca L, Martufi P, Arbez N, Mouchiroud L, Auwerx Y, Landles C, Bates GP, Singh‐Bains M, Dragunow M, Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Ross CA, Caricasole A, Lashuel HA. TBK1 suppresses mutant HTT induced toxicity and pathology in models of Huntington's disease. The EMBO Journal, DOI: 10.15252/embj.2020104671, 2020. 


High content analysis

Wilkie RP, Vissers M, Dragunow M, Hampton M. A Functional NADPH Oxidase Prevents Caspase Involvement In The Clearance Of Phagocytic Neutrophils. Infection & Immunity 75 (7) 3256-3263, 2007.

Narayan P, Gibbons H, Mee E, Faull R, Dragunow M. High throughput quantification of cells with complex morphology in mixed cultures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 164(2) 339-349, 2007.

Byrne U, Bond J, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. High-throughput quantification of Alzheimer's disease pathological markers in the post-mortem human brain. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 176, 298-309, 2009. 

Dragunow M, Cameron R, Narayan P, and O’Carroll S. Image-based high-through-put quantification of cellular fat accumulation. Journal of Biomolecular Screening 12(7) 999-1005, 2007.

Scotter E, Narayan P, Glass M, Dragunow M. High Throughput Quantification of Mutant Huntington Aggregates. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 171, 174-179, 2008.

Grimsey N, Narayan P, Dragunow M, Glass M. Novel high-throughput assay for the quantitative assessment of receptor trafficking. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 35(11), 1377-1382, 2008.

Scotter E, Goodfellow C, Graham E, Dragunow M, Glass M. Neuroprotective Potential of CB1 Receptor Agonists in an in vitro model of Huntington’s Disease. British Journal of Pharmacology 160 (3),747-761,2010.

Grimsey N, Graham S, Dragunow M, Glass M. Cannabinoid receptor trafficking and the role of the intracellular pool: implications for therapeutics. Biochemical Pharmacology 80(7):1050-1062, 2010.

Narayan P Dragunow M. High content analysis of histone acetylation in human cells and tissues. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 193, 54-61, 2010.

Shinjyo N, Stahlberg A, Dragunow M, Pekny M, Pekna M. Complement-derived anaphylatoxin C3a regulates in vitro differentiation and migration of neural progenitor cells. Stem Cells 27, 2824-2832, 2009.

Grimsey N, Goodfellow C, Dragunow M, Glass M. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 undergoes Rab5-mediated  internalization and recycles via a Rab11-dependent pathway. BBA Molecular Cell Research 1813: 1554-1560, 2011.

Goodfellow C, Graham S, Dragunow M, Glass M. Characterisation of NTera2/D1 cells as a model system for the investigation of cannabinoid function in human neurons and astrocytes. Journal of Neuroscience Research 89(10), 1685-1697, 2011.

Parker H, Dragunow M, Hampton M, Kettle A, Winterbourn C. Requirements for NADPH Oxidase and Myeloperoxidase in Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Differ Depending on Stimulus. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 92, 841-849, 2012.

Vance C, Scotter E, Nishimura A, Troakes C, Mitchell J, Kathe C, Urwin H, Manser C, Miller C, Hortobagyi T, Dragunow M, Rogelj B, Shaw CE. ALS mutant FUS disrupts nuclear localisation and sequesters wild-type FUS within cytoplasmic stress granules. Human Molecular Genetics 22(13): 2676-88, 2013


Human receptor autoradiography

Jansen K, Faull RLM, and Dragunow M. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the human cerebral cortex: A quantitative autoradiographic study comparing the distributions of [3H]TCP, [3H]Glycine, L-[3H]glutamate, [3H]AMPA and [3H]kainic acid binding sites. Neuroscience 32(3), 587-607, 1989.

Jansen K, Faull R, Dragunow M, Synek B. Alzheimers Disease: changes in hippocampal NMDA, quisqualate, neurotensin, adenosine, benzodiazepine, serotonin and opioid receptors: an autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 39(3), 613-627, 1990.

Jansen K, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, and Leslie RL. Distribution of  excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, sigma, monoamine, catecholamine, acetylcholine, opioid, neurotensin, substance P, adenosine and neuropeptide Y receptors in human primary motor and somatosensory cortex. Brain Research 566, 225-238, 1991.

Jansen KLR, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, and Leslie RA. Autoradiographic distribution of sigma receptors in human neocortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, pineal and pituitary glands. Brain Research 559, 172-177, 1991.

Glass M, Faull RLM, and Dragunow M. Loss of cannabinoid receptors in the substantia nigra in Hungtington's disease. Neuroscience 56, 523-527, 1993.

Glass M, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: a detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience  77 (2): 299-318, 1997.

Glass M, Faull RLM, Bullock J, Jansen K, Mee E, Walker E, Synek B, Dragunow M. Loss of A1 adenosine receptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain Research 710, 56-68, 1996.

Glass M, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Localization of the adenosine uptake site in the human brain: A comparison with the distribution of adenosine A1 receptors. Brain Research 710, 79-91, 1996.

Glass M, Dragunow M, Faull RLM. The pattern of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease: A comparative study of cannabinoid, dopamine, adenosine and GABAa receptor alterations in the human basal ganglia in Huntington's disease. Neuroscience 97(3) 505-519, 2000.

Richards G, Messer J, Waldvogel H, Gibbons H, Dragunow M, Faull R and Saura J. Quantitative enzyme radioautography reveals an up-regulation of the isoenzymes MAO-A and MAO-B in human basal ganglia and pons in Huntington’s disease. Brain Research 1370: 204-14, 2011.


Human brain immunohistochemistry

Dragunow M, Faull RLM, Lawlor P, Beilharz E, Singleton K, Walker L, and Mee E. In situ evidence for DNA fragmentation in Huntington's disease striatum and Alzheimer's disease temporal cortex. Neuroreport 6, 1053-1057, 1995.

Butterworth N, Williams L, Bullock J, Love D, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, CAG  repeat length in positively correlated with the degree of DNA fragmentation in Huntington’s disease striatum Neuroscience 87 (1): 49-53, 1998.

Reid S, Rees M, van Roon W, Jones L, MacDonald M, Sutherland G, During M, Faull RLM, Owen M, Dragunow M, Snell RS. Molecular investigation of TBP allele length: a SCA17 cellular model and population study. Neurobiology of Disease 13, 37-45, 2003.

Curtis MA, Penney EB, Van Roon W, Butterworth N, Pearson A, Dragunow M, Connor B, Faull RLM. Increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult human Huntington's disease brain. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 (15) 9023-9027, 2003.

Reid S, van Roon-Mom W, Wood PC, Rees MI, Owen MJ, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, Snell RG. TBP, a polyglutamine tract containing protein, accumulates in Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Brain Research 125, 120-128, 2004.

Pearson AG, Curtis MA, Waldvogel HJ, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. ATF-2 expression in the adult human brain: association with both neurodegeneration and neurogenesis. Neuroscience 133(2) 437-451, 2005.

Pearson AG, Byrne UT, MacGibbon GA, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Activated c-Jun is present in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease brains. Neuroscience Letters 398: 246-250, 2006.

Curtis MA, Kam M, Nannmark U, Anderson MF, Zetterstrom Axell M, Wikkelso C, Holtås S, van Roon-Mom W, Björk-Eriksson T, Nordborg C, Frisen J, Dragunow M, Faull R, Eriksson P. Human Neuroblasts Migrate to the Olfactory bulb via a Lateral Ventricular Extension. Science 315 (5816) 1243-1249, 2007 (Research Article).

Liu YWJ, Curtis MA Gibbons HM, Mee EW, Bergin PS, Teoh HH, Connor B, Dragunow M, Faull RLM. Doublecortin expression in the normal and epileptic human brain. European Journal of Neuroscience 28 (11), 2254-2265, 2008.

Low V, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, Tippett L, Curtis M. No change in progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus in Huntington's disease. Neuroscience 199, 577–588, 2011.

Waldvogel H, Dragunow M, Faull RLM. Disrupted vasculature and blood brain barrier provide new research horizons and treatment strategies in Huntington’s disease. Annals of Neurology 78(2) 158-159, 2015

Kim J, Waldvogel HJ, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Nicholson LFB (2015) The RAGE receptor and its ligands are highly expressed in astrocytes in a grade-dependant manner in the striatum and subependymal layer in Huntington’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 134:927-942

Liu P, Fleete MS, Jing Y, Collie ND, Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Abraham WC, Zhang H. (2014) Altered arginine metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease brains. Neurobiology of Aging 35:1992-2003

Pekny T, Faiz M, Wilhelmsson U, Curtis MA, Matej R, Skalli O, Pekny M (2014) Synemin is expressed in reactive astrocytes and Rosenthal fibers in Alexander disease. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica and Immunologica Scandinavica. 122:76-80

Vedam-Mai V, Gardner B, Okun MS, Siebzehnrubl, Kam M, Aponso P, Steindler DA, Yachnis AT, Neal D, Oliver BU, Rath SJ, Faull RLM, Reynolds BA, Curtis MA. (2014) Increased precursor cell proliferation after deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease: a human study. PLoS ONE. 9:e88770

Dieriks BV, Waldvogel HJ, Monzo HJ, Faull RLM, Curtis MA (2013) GABAA receptor characterization and subunit colocalisation in the human subventricular zone. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 52:56-68

Sutherland G, Sheahan P, Matthews, Dennis C, Sheedy D, McCrossin T, Curtis MA, Kril J (2013) The effects of chronic alcoholism on cell proliferation in the human brain. Experimental Neurology. 247:9-18

Lindwall C, Olsson M, Osman AM, Kuhn HG, Curtis MA (2013) Selective Expression of Hyaluronan and Receptor for Hyaluronan Mediated Motility (Rhamm) in the adult mouse subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream and in ischemic cortex. Brain Research. 1503:62-77

Behrendt G, Baer K, Buffo A, Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Rees MI, Gotz M, Dimou L (2013) Dynamic changes in myelin aberrations and oligodendrocyte generation in chronic amyloidosis in mice and men. Glia 61:273-286

Curtis MA, Low VF, Faull RLM (2012) Neurogenesis and Progenitor Cells in the Human Brain: A comparison between hippocampal and subventricular progenitor proliferation. Developmental Neurobiology 72:990-1005

Tjärnlund-Wolf A, Hultman K, Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Medcalf R, Jern C. (2011) Allelic imbalance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human brain tissue. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 105:945-953

Curtis MA, Kam M, Faull RLM (2011) Neurogenesis in Humans. European Journal of Neuroscience 33:1170-1174

Landgren H, Curtis MA (2011) Locating and labelling neural stem cells in the brain. Journal of Cellular Physiology 226:1-7

Bradford D, Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Cooper H (2010) Characterization of the netrin/RGMa receptor, Neogenin, in neurogenic regions of the mouse and human adult forebrain. Journal of Comparative Neurology 518:3237-53

van den Berge SA, Middledorp J, Eleana Zhang C, Curtis MA, Leonard BW, Mastroeni D, Voorn P, van de Berg WD, Huitinga I, Hol EM (2010) Longterm quiescent cells in aged human subventricular neurogenic system specifically express GFAP-delta. Aging Cell 9:313-26

Persson A, Lindwall C, Curtis MA*, Kuhn HG* (2010) Expression of ERM proteins in the adult subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream. Neuroscience 167:312-322 *joint corresponding authors

Curtis MA, Monzo HJ, Faull RLM (2009) The rostral migratory stream and olfactory system: Smell, disease and slippery cells. Special issue-Progress in restorative neuroscience and neurology. Progress in Brain Research 175: 33-42

Kam M, Curtis MA, McGlashan SR, Connor B, Nannmark U, Faull RLM (2009) The cellular composition and     morphological organization of the rostral migratory stream in the adult human brain. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 37:196-205

Curtis MA, Naylor AS, Faull RLM (2008) Manipulation of stem cells as a rehabilitative therapy. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation. 8:8-9

Curtis MA, Kam M, Nannmark M, Faull RLM, Eriksson PS (2007) Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension (Technical comment and response). Science 318(5849):393

Baer K, Eriksson PS, Faull RLM, Rees MI, Curtis MA (2007) Sox-2 is expressed by glial and progenitor cells and Pax-6 is expressed by neuroblasts in the human subventricular zone. Experimental Neurology 204:828-831

Curtis MA, Eriksson PS, Faull RLM (2007) Progenitor cells and adult neurogenesis in the healthy and diseased human brain. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 34:(5&6)528-532

Paulson L, Eriksson PS, Curtis MA (2007) Defining primary and secondary stem/progenitor disorders in the diseased brain by spatiotemporal proteome analyses. Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 8:117-125

Curtis MA, Faull RLM, Glass M (2006) A novel population of progenitor cells expressing cannabinoid receptors in the subependymal layer of the adult normal and Huntington's disease human brain. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 31:210-215

Evers ME, Schut MH, Pepers BA, Atalar M, van Belzen MJ, Faull RLM, Roos RAC, van Roon-Mom WMC (2015) Making (anti-) sense out of huntingtin levels in Huntington disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration, 10: 21-31.

Kim EH, Thu DCV, Tippett LJ, Oorschot DE, Hogg VM, Roxburgh R, Synek BJ, Waldvogel HJ,  Faull RLM  (2014). Cortical interneuron loss and symptom heterogeneity in Huntington’s disease. Annals of Neurology, 75: 717-727.

Nana AL, Kim EH, Thu DCV, Oorschot DE, Tippett LJ, Hogg VM, Synek BJ, Roxburgh R,  Waldvogel HJ,  Faull RLM  (2014)  Widespread heterogeneous neuronal loss across the cerebral cortex in Huntingon’s disease. Journal of Huntington’s Disease, 3: 45-64.

Morton JA, Rudiger SR, Wood NI, Sawiak SJ, Brown GC, McLaughlan CJ, Kuchel TR, Snell RG, Faull RLM, Bawden CS (2014). Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington’s disease sheep are unmasked by social environment. Human Molecular Genetics, 23: 3375-3383.

Reid SJ, Patassini S, Handley RR, Rudiger SR, McLaughlan CJ, Osmand A, Jacobsen JC, Morton AJ,  Weiss A, Waldvogel HJ, MacDonald ME, Gusella JF, Bawden S, Faull RLM, Snell RG (2013). Further molecular characterisation of the OVT73 transgenic ovine model of Huntington’s disease identifies cortical aggregates. Journal of Huntington’s Disease, 2: 279-295.

Reiner A, Shelby E, Wang H, Demarch Z, Deng Y, Guley NH, Hogg V, Roxburgh R, Tippett LJ, Waldvogel HJ, Faull RLM (2013). Striatal parvalbuminergic neurons are lost in Huntington's Disease:implications for dystonia. Movement Disorders, 28: 1691-1699.

Schonberger SJ, Jezdic D, Faull RLM Cooper GJS (2013).  Proteomic analysis of the human brain in Huntington’s disease indicates pathogenesis by molecular processes linked to other neurodegenerative diseases and to type-2 diabetes. Journal of Huntington’s Disease, 2: 89-99.

Low VF, Faull RLM Gunn A, Bennett L, Curtis MA (2013). Neurogenesis and progenitor cell distribution in the subgranular zone and subventricular zone of the adult sheep brain. Neuroscience, 244: 173-187.

Lowe, M, Kim, E, Faull, RLM, Christie, D, Waldvogel, H (2013).  Dissociated expression of mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinases in the human brain: a new perspective on the role of creatine in brain energy metabolism. Journal of Cerebral Blood flow and Metabolism, 33: 1295-1306.

Sathasivam K, Neueder A, Gipson TA, Landles C, Benjamin AC, Bondulich MK, Smith DL, Faull RLM, Roos RAC, Howland D, Detloff PJ, Housman DE, Bates GP (2013) Aberrant splicing of HTT generates the pathogenic exon 1 protein in Huntington's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 110: 2366-2370.

Chiang C, Jacobsen JC, Ernst C, Hanscom C, Heilbut A, Blumenthal I, Mills RE, Kirby A, Lindgren AM, Rudiger SR, McLaughlan CJ, Bawden CS, Reid SJ, Faull RLM, Snell RG, Hall IM, Shen Y, Ohsumi TK, Borowsky ML, Daly MJ, Lee C, Morton CC, MacDonald ME, Gusella JF, Talkowski ME (2012).  Complex eorganization and predominant non-homologous repair following chromosomalbreakage in karyotypically balanced germline rearrangements and transgenic integration. Nature Genetics 44 (4), 390-397.

Behrendt G, Baer K, Buffo A, Faull RLM, Rees MI, Götz M, Dimou L(2012)  Dynamic changes in myelin aberrations and oligodendrocyte generation in chronic amyloidosis in mice and men. Glia (in press) doi:10.1002/glia.22432.

Marcellin D, Abramowski D, Young D, Richter J, Weiss A, Marcel A, Maassen J, Kauffmann M, Bibel M, Shimshek D, Faull RLM, Bates GP, Kuhn RR, Van der Putten PH, Schmid PLotz GP (2012)Fragments of HdhQ150 mutant huntingtin fragments form a soluble oligomer pool that  declines with aggregate deposition upon aging.  PLoS ONE 7(9): e44457.    doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044457.

Waldvogel HJ, Kim EH, Thu DCV, Tippett LJ, Faull RLM (2012). New Perspectives on the neuropathology in Huntington's disease in the human brain and its relation to symptom variation. Journal of Huntington's Disease, 1, 143-153. doi:10.3233/JHD-2012-120018.

Kuhn A, Thu D, Waldvogel HJ, Faull RLM, Luthi-Carter R (2011) Population-specific expression analysis (PSEA) reveals myelin-related changes in human neurodegenerative disease brain. Nature Methods 8, 945-947,  

Thu DCV, Oorschot DE, Tippett LJ, Nana AL, Hogg VM, Synek BJ, Luthi-Carter R, Waldvogel HJ, Faull RLM (2010).  Cell loss in the motor and cingulate Cortex correlates with symptomatology in Huntington’s diseaseBrain, 133, 1094-1110.

Jacobsen JC, Bawden CS, Rudiger SR, McLaughlan CJ, Reid SJ, Waldvogel HJ, MacDonaldME, Gusella JF, Walker SK, Kelly JM, Webb GC, Faull RLM, Rees MI, Snell RG (2010).  An ovine transgenic Huntington’s disease modelHuman Molecular Genetics 19, 1873 – 82.

Kam M, Curtis MA, McGlashan SR, Connor B, Nannmark U, Faull RLM (2009).  The cellular composition and morphological organization of the rostral migratory stream in the adult humanbrain. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 37, 196-205.

Gonitel R, Moffitt H, Sathasivam K, Woodman B, Detloff PJ, Faull RLM, Bates GP (2008). DNA instability in post-mitotic neurons.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sc. USA, 105, 3467-3472.

Kuhn A, Goldstein DR, Hodges A, Strand AD, Sengstag T, Kooperberg C, Becanovic  K, Pouladi M, Cha J-H J, Hannan AJ, Hayden M, Leavitt B, Dunnett SB, Ferrante RJ,  Albin R, Shelbourne P, Delorenzi M, Augood SJ, Faull RLM, Olson JM, Bates GP, Jones L, Luthi-Carter R (2007). Mutant huntingtin’s effects on striatal gene expression in mice recapitulate changes observed in human Huntington’s disease brain and do  not differ with mutant huntingtin length or wild-type huntingtin dosage.  Human Molecular Genetics, 16, 1845-1861.

Waldvogel HJ, Baer K, Allen KL, Rees MI, Faull RLM (2007). Glycine receptors in the striatum, globus pallidus and substantia nigra of the human brain: an immunohistochemical study. J. Comp. Neurol., 502, 1012-1029.

Tippett LJ, Waldvogel HJ, Thomas SJ, Hogg VM, van Roon-Mom W, Synek BJ, Graybiel AM, Faull RLM (2007). Striosomes and mood dysfunction in Huntington’s disease.  Brain, 130, 206-221.

Smith R, Chung H, Rundquist S, Maat-Schieman MLC, Colgan L, Englund E, Liu Y-J, Roos RAC, Faull RLM, Brundin P, Li J-Y (2006). Cholinergic neuronal defect Without cell loss in Huntington’s disease.  Human Molecular Genetics, 15, 3119-3131.

Hodges A, Strand AD, Aragaki AK, Sengstag T, Hughes G, Elliston LA, Hartog C, Goldstein DR, Régulier E, Zala D, Sick B, Thu D, Hollingsworth ZR, Collin F, Synek B, Holmans PA, Aebischer P, Ferrante RJ, Young AB, Delorenzi M, Déglon N, Kooperberg C, Augood SJ, Faull RLM, Olson JM, Jones L, Luthi-Carter R (2006).  Regional and cellular gene expression changes in human Huntington’s disease brain. Human Molecular Genetics, 15, 965-977.

van Roon-Mom WMC, Reid SJ, Faull RLM and Snell, RG (2005). TATA-binding protein in neurodegenerative disease. Neuroscience, 133, 863-872.

Waldvogel HJ, Billinton A, White JH, Emson PC, Faull RLM (2004). The comparative cellular distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors in the human basal ganglia: immunohistochemical co- localisation of the a1 subunit of the GABAA receptor, and the GABABR1 and the GABABR2 receptor subunits.  J.Comp. Neurol., 470, 339-356.

Glass M, van Dellen A, Blakemore C, Hannan AJ, Faull RLM (2004). Delayed onset of Huntington’s Disease in mice in an enriched environment correlates with delayed loss of cannabinoid CB1 receptors.  Neuroscience, 123, 207-212.

Mimmack ML, Ryan M, Baba H, Navarro-Ruiz J, Iritani S, Faull RLM, McKenna PJ, Jones PB, Arai H, Starkey M, Emson PC, Bahn S (2002). Gene expression analysis in schizophrenia: reproducible upregulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 22.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 4680-4685.

Morton AJ, Faull RLM, Edwardson JM (2001). Abnormalities in the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery in Huntington’s diseaseBrain Research Bulletin, 56, 111-117.


Adult human brain cell culture

Park T, Smyth L, Aalderink M, Woolf Z, Rustenhoven J, Lee K, Jansson D, Smith A, Feng S, Correia J, Heppner P, Schweder P, Mee E, Dragunow M. Routine culture & study of adult human brain cells from neurosurgical specimens. Nature Protocols (in press). This article details the methods for the culture and study of human brain cells from neurosurgical donors

Gibbons H, Hughes S, Van Roon-Mom W, Greenwood J, Narayan P, Teoh H,  Bergin P, Wood P, Mee E, Faull R, Dragunow, M. Cellular composition of human glial cultures from adult biopsy brain tissue. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 166, 89-98, 2007.

Gibbons H, Smith A, Teoh H, Bergin P, Mee E, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Valproic acid induces microglial dysfunction, not apoptosis, in human glial cultures. Neurobiology of Disease 41, 96-103, 2011.

Park T, Monzo H, Mee EW, Bergin PS, Teoh HH, Montgomery JM, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Dragunow M. Adult Human Brain Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs) and Fibroblast-Like Cells Have Similar Properties In Vitro but Only NPCs Differentiate Into Neurons. PLoS One, 92(4):841-9, 2012.

Smith A, Gibbons H, Oldfield RL, Bergin PM, Mee EW, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. The transcription factor PU.1 is critical for viability and function of human brain microglia. Glia 61(6):929-42, 2013.

Smith A, Gibbons H, Oldfield R, Bergin P, Mee E, Curtis M, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. M-CSF increases proliferation and phagocytosis while modulating receptor and transcription factor expression in adult human microglia. Journal of Neuroinflammation 10: 85. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-10-85, 2013

Smith A, Graham S, Feng S, Oldfield R, Bergin P, Mee E, Faull RLM, Curtis M,  Dragunow M. Adult human glia, pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts respond similarly to IFNg but not to TGFβ1 or M-CSF. PLoS One 2013 Dec 5;8(12):e80463

Jansson D, Rustenhoven J, Feng S, Hurley D, Oldfield RL, Bergin PS, Mee EW, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. A role for human brain pericytes in neuroinflammation. Journal of Neuroinflammation 11:104 DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-11-104, 2014.

Rustenhoven J, Scotter E, Jansson D, Kho D, Oldfield R, Bergin PS, Mee E, Faull RLM, Curtis M, Graham S, Park T, Dragunow M. An anti-inflammatory role for CEBPδ in human brain pericytes. Scientific Reports 5:12132. doi: 10.1038/srep12132, 2015

Park T, Waldvogel H, Montgomery J, Mee E, Bergin P, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, Curtis M. Chapter 27. Identifying neural progenitor cells in the adult human brain. In Neural Progenitor Cells: Methods and Protocols B Reynolds and L. Deleyrolle (Eds.). Springer Science+Business Media New York, 1059:195-225, 2013.

Smith A, Gibbons H, Lill C, Faull RLM, Dragunow M. Isolation and culture of adult human microglia within mixed glial cultures for functional experimentation and high content analysis. In Microglia: Methods in Molecular Biology Edited by Bertrand Joseph and José Luis Venero, Humana Press, NY, Volume 1041, 2013, pp 41-51.

Axel MZ, Zlateva S, Curtis MA (2009) A method for rapid derivation and propagation of neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 184:275-284.

Dieriks BV, Park TH, Fourie C, Faull RLM, Dragunow M, Curtis M. α-synuclein transfer through tunneling nanotubes occurs in SH-SY5Y cells and primary brain pericytes from Parkinson’s disease patients. Scientific Reports 2017 Feb 23;7:42984. doi: 10.1038/srep42984.

Dragunow M, Feng S, Rustenhoven J, Curtis M, Faull RLM. Studying human brain inflammation in leptomeningeal and choroid plexus explant cultures. Neurochemical Research 41(3) 579-588, 2016.

Rustenhoven J, Park T, Schweder P, Scotter J, Correia J, Smith A, Gibbons H, Oldfield R, Bergin P, Mee E, Faull RLM, Curtis M, Graham ES, Dragunow M. Isolation of highly enriched primary human microglia for functional studies.  Scientific Reports, 26: 19371. doi: 10.1038/srep19371 2016.

Rustenhoven J, Aalderink M, Scotter E, Oldfield R, Bergin P, Mee E, Graham ES, Faull RLM, Curtis M, Park T, Dragunow M.  TGFβ1 regulates human brain pericyte inflammatory processes involved in neurovascular function. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 6: 26587. doi: 10.1038/srep26587, 2016.

Park T, Feisst V, Brooks A, Rustenhoven J, Monzo H, Feng S, Mee E, Bergin P, Oldfield R, Graham ES, Curtis M, Faull RLM, Dunbar R, Dragunow M. Cultured pericytes from human brain show phenotypic and functional differences with differential CD90 expression. Scientific Reports 6:26587. doi: 10.1038/srep26587, 2016.

Jansson D, Scotter E, Rustenhoven J, Coppieters N, Smyth L, Oldfield RL, Bergin PS, Mee EW, Faull RLM, Dragunow M Interferon blocks signaling through PDGFRb in human brain pericytes. Journal of Neuroinflammation 13: 249, 2016.



Dragunow, M., and Robertson, H.A. Kindling stimulation induces c‑fos   protein(s) in granule cells of the dentate gyrus.  Nature, 329, 441‑442, 1987.

Dragunow M, Robertson GS, Faull RLM, Robertson H, Jansen K. D2 dopamine receptor antagonists induce Fos and related proteins in striatal neurons. Neuroscience 37(2), 287-294, 1990.

MacGibbon GA, Lawlor PA, Bravo R, and Dragunow M. Clozapine and Haloperidol produce a differential pattern of immediate-early gene expression in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum and Islands of Calleja. Molecular Brain Research 23, 21-32, 1994.

Abraham WC, Christie BR, Logan B, and M Dragunow. Immediate-early gene expression associated with the persistence of heterosynaptic long-term depression in the hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences (USA) 91, 10049-10053, 1994.

Young D, Lawlor P, Leone P, Dragunow M, During M. Environmental enrichment inhibits spontaneous apoptosis, prevents seizures and is neuroprotective. Nature (Medicine) 5(4) 448-453, 1999.

Greenwood J, Dragunow M. Muscarinic receptor mediated phosphorylation of CREB in human neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Neurochemistry 82, 389-397, 2002.

Abraham WC, Logan B, Greenwood J, Dragunow M. Induction and experience-dependent consolidation of stable LTP lasting months in the hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience 22(21) 9626-9634, 2002.

Zhang S, Liu J, MacGibbon G, Dragunow M, Cooper GJS. Increased Expression and Activation of c-Jun contributes to Human Amylin-induced Apoptosis in Pancreatic islet beta cells. Journal of  Molecular Biology 324, 271-285, 2002.

Zhang S, Liu J, Dragunow M, Cooper GJ. Fibrillogenic amylin evokes islet beta-cell apoptosis through linked activation of a caspase cascade and JNK1. Journal of Biological  Chemistry 278 (52) 52810-52819, 2003.

Greenwood J and Dragunow M. M3 muscarinic receptors promote cell survival through activation of the extracellular regulated kinase pathway. European Journal of Pharmacology 640 (1-3), 38-45, 2010.

Heapy A, Dragunow M, Brimble M. Synthesis of the cysteine protease inhibitors CPI-2081a and CPI-2081b using a controlled SPPS by-product forming reaction. SYNLETT: LETTER 24, 1818-1824, 2013.

Graham S, Woo K, Aalderink M, Fry S, Greenwood J, Glass M, Dragunow M. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 Cells. PLoS One 2013 Sep 2; 8(9):e72011.

Young D, Fong D, Lawlor P, Wu A, Mouravlev A, McRae M, Glass M, Dragunow M and During M. Adenosine kinase, glutamine synthetase and EAAT2 as gene therapy targets for temporal lobe epilepsy. Gene Therapy 12, 1029-1040, 2014.

Dragunow, M. Adenosine : The Brain's Natural Anticonvulsant? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7(4), 128‑130, 1986.

Dragunow, M., and Robertson, H.A. Seizure‑inducible c‑fos protein(s) in   mammalian neurons.   Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 9, 5‑6, 1988

Dragunow, M., and Faull, R.L.M.   Neuroprotective effects of  adenosine.  Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 9, 193‑194, (1988).

Dragunow M. GABA and seizure initiation in vivo. Trends in Neurosciences 12, 10, 1989.

Dragunow M. Pentoxifylline in Stroke - possible complications. Stroke 20(8): 1115 (1989).

Dragunow M and Faull, RLM. The use of c-fos as a metabolic marker in neuronal pathway tracing. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 29: 261-265 (1989).

Dragunow M. Adenosine and Seizure Termination. Annals of Neurology 29, 5, 1991.

Hughes P and Dragunow M. Immediate-early genes and the control of neurotransmitter-regulated gene expression within the nervous system. Pharmacological Reviews 47(1) 133-178, 1995.

Dragunow M and K Preston. The role of inducible transcription factors in apoptotic nerve cell death. Brain Research Reviews 21, 1-28, 1995.

Glass M and Dragunow M. Neurochemical and morphological changes associated with human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain Research Reviews 21, 29-41, 1995.

Connor B and Dragunow M. The role of neuronal growth factors in neurodegenerative disorders of the human brain. Brain Research Reviews 27 1-39, 1998.

Dragunow M. MacGibbon G, Lawlor P, B Connor, N Butterworth, Henderson, M Walton, A-M Woodgate, Hughes, Faull RLM, Apoptosis, Growth factors and neurodegeneration. Reviews in the Neurosciences 8(3-4) 223-265, 1998.

Walton M, Connor B, Lawlor P, Young D,  Sirimanne E, Cole G, Gluckman P, Dragunow M. Neuronal death and survival in two models of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage Brain Research Reviews 29, 137-168, 1999.

Walton M and Dragunow M. Is CREB a key to neuronal survival? Trends in Neuroscience 23, 48-53, 2000.

Dragunow, M. M3 Muscarinic receptors as targets for drug development in neurodegenerative disorders. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7, (February 2008) doi:10.1038/nrd2506-c1.

Narayan P and Dragunow M. Pharmacology of epigenetics in brain disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology 159, 285-303, 2010.

Dragunow M. Purinergic Mechanisms in Epilepsy. The Open Neuroscience Journal 4, 31-34, 2010.

Coppitiers N Dragunow M. Epigenetics in Alzheimer’s disease: a focus on DNA modifications. Current Pharmaceutical Design Special Issue – Emerging Therapeutics in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases” 17(31):3398-412, 2011.

Dragunow M. Meningeal and Choroid Plexus Cells – Novel Drug Targets for CNS Disorders. Brain Research 1501, 32-55, 2013.